Polynesians, a group of kindred peoples, the indigenous population of Polynesia and some small islands of eastern Melanesia. These include Tongans (Tonga Islands), Samoans (Samoan Islands), Uveans (Wallis Islands), Futunans (Horn Islands), Ellis (Ellis Islands), Tokelauans (Tokelau Islands), Niueans (Niue Island), Pukapukans, Rrotongans, Mangayans , Tongarevanis, Manihiki-Rakahangans, etc. (Cook Islands), Tahitians (Society Islands), Tubuan (Tubuai Islands), Tuamotuans, Napukans, Reao-Pukarukhans (Tuamotu Islands), Mangarevants (Gambier Islands), Khivans (Marquise Islands, Tumanotu Islands), Mangarevants (Gambier Islands), Khivans (Marquise Islands, Tamouan Islands), Mangarevants (Gambie Islands), Khivans Rapanuyutsy (Easter Island), Hawaiians (Hawaiian Islands), Maori (New Zealand). The total number is about 750 thousand people. (1970, evaluation).
Polynesian Languages they enter into the Malay- Polynesian family of languages. Ruling religion (Christianity) is combined in Polynesia with the ancient local beliefs. Anthropological type Polynesians was formed as a result of the mixing of ancient southern mongoloidov and negro -avstraloidov. T. Hyerdahl defends the theory of American origin Polynesians, but the majority of researchers considers that by ancestors Polynesians there were the groups of the navigators, who of southeastern Asia penetrated through Melanesia and Micronesia to the western boundaries of polynesia. Here under the conditions for comparative isolation was completed anthropological type formation Polynesians and the basic special features of obshchepolineziyskoy culture. Population Polynesians the numerous islands of polynesia it began, probably, from the middle of the 1st of thousand. to n. 3. and it was extended almost to 2 millenia. In spite of the limitedness of the natural resources of islands, in particular the absence of metals, Polynesians they knew how to create relatively high culture.
The primary occupations they were tropical agriculture, by places with the application of fertilizers and artificial irrigation, and fishing. They separated pigs, dogs, hens. They were occupied by different crafts, which has already been separated from the agriculture. At the beginning of European colonization (end 18 V.) P. were located on different stages of the decomposition of primitive communal system, and in the Hawaiian islands, Tahiti and Tonga they were added ranneklassovye states. The management of colonizers led to the significant decrease of number P., to loss by them the best earth, to the destruction of many sides of their original culture. On many islands the capitalist relations of steel determining, although the survivals of primitive communal structure were preserved. Contemporary P. they conduct polunatural'noye agriculture, they work on the capitalist plantations, not numerous intelligentsia appeared. P. they carry on a struggle for the national release. In 1962 reached national independence West of Samoa.